Job analysis, a crucial and common human resource management technique, is sometimes described as a systematic process to determine the knowledge, responsibilities, and abilities necessary to carry out the work. It serves as the foundation for all human resource management initiatives, including data collection for practices like hiring, training, performance evaluation, and pay structure.
Why do Organizations Do Job Analysis?
It can first assist organizations in becoming aware of the changes. Although it’s easy to think of work as static and unchanging, it undergoes ongoing change. People who work frequently adjust their processes to suit changing external conditions or their own personal working patterns. The major causes of errors that could occur during the job analysis process include out-of-date descriptions. Along with the static definition of work, the job analysis process should also examine changes in work.
Second, a thorough job analysis was conducted to identify the organization’s potential weaknesses. The job analysis produced information about job-related issues that can help managers comprehend the workflow, and the organization’s irrationality was revealed, allowing managers to redesign certain processes and increase productivity.
Through research into staff structure and staffing management, the work managers reject the illogical staff structure and minimize or waste human resources, duplication, or lack of behavior.
Job analysis is crucial when primary managers assess the performance of their staff. Managers must comprehend each task that needs to be completed, and this process can be seen as the overall investigation of any potential organizational structure issues.
Job analysis also serves as the cornerstone of human resources management. The work analysis is a necessary step in almost all human resources plans or programs and has an impact on the management of human resources in the following areas:
To make a job more efficient, job redesign is necessary since job analysis and job design are inextricably intertwined.
Plans for human resources
The planning process must gather a range of data, focus on skill levels, and guarantee that there is a suitable number of staff members to support the organization’s strategic planning needs. Before choosing candidates for roles, the primary responsibilities of the post must be established. Candidates must also possess the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities. Through job analysis, this data was gathered.
To verify the effectiveness of training and that training assists trainee in carrying out their tasks effectively, trainers can see what work trainees need to complete.
Evaluation of Performance
To determine each employee’s position to identify those who have performed well and qualify for bonuses and forfeitures
A person’s abilities and goals should line up with any new opportunities that the business may have. For instance, some corporate employees leave the company to work for other companies that can attract them to more important jobs. In reality, this enterprise has similar job openings, but by the time the company realized this, it was already too late. This reflects the management’s lack of career planning and the unreliable communication channels that cause brain drain.
Evaluating each task creates a just pay structure. Information about the task must be gathered to calculate fair compensation for each position. Because it can only be done in this manner, it may decide what should be done to help businesses generate more revenue.
Job Analysis Process
Though essential, job analyses are not always simple to produce. In actuality, a process is involved. Although there is no foolproof method for creating a job analysis, the following are the essential steps:
- Organizational Job Analysis
Gathering relevant information about a job is the first step in a job analysis. This is necessary to understand the nature of a work, how it relates to other positions, and how it affects the organization’s success. Such information can be obtained by segmenting background data into different formats, including organization charts (which show how a specific job relates to other jobs), class specifications (which describe the overall requirements of a job family), job descriptions (which serve as the basis for revised job descriptions), and flowcharts.
- Selecting Representative Jobs for Analysis
It is expensive and time-consuming to analyze every job in an organization. For the goal of a thorough investigation, only a representative sample of employment is chosen.
- Gathering Job Data for Job Analysis
In this step, the job’s characteristics and the employee’s needed skills are gathered. Data might be gathered by observation, interviews, or questionnaires. However, appropriate attention should be taken to choose and employ the data collection technique that is most dependable in the particular job circumstance.
- Creating a Job Description
A job description is currently being created using the job information gathered in the ways mentioned above. A job description is a written declaration that lists the tasks, obligations, and responsibilities that must be met to do the job successfully.
- Creating Job Specifications
Using the data gathered during the job analysis, job specifications are created as the final stage. This is a written description of the personal characteristics, attributes, abilities, qualifications, aptitude, etc. needed to successfully carry out a job.
Job Analysis Methods
A manager can use a few different techniques to figure out what knowledge, skills, and talents are necessary to carry out a specific task. The following are the different techniques:
- Method of direct observation
In this method, job analysts watch employees as they work or watch videos of them at work. This approach provides essential job information. It offers information obtained directly. In many situations, employees would not be able to perform or function at their best when they are being closely observed at work.
As a result, this strategy may be distorted, according to job analysts. In some jobs, such as most managerial positions, it is challenging to observe every activity. In other jobs, however, it is possible to observe a person while they are working.
- Individual interview techniques
In this technique, the job analyzer chooses and thoroughly interviews the person in charge of the jobs. These interviews are bundled into the outcomes for a single job. This approach offers a useful means of determining what a work comprises or what a job demands. But it takes a lot of time to use this approach. The process of interviewing people and gathering the data required for the job is very time-consuming.
- Group interview method
The main difference between this technique and the solo interview technique is the use of groups. This approach provides job analysts with a strategy that is recognized as a great way to obtain data on jobs. Additionally, it has been shown that feedback is frequently insufficient and that errors in a project may be disregarded.
- Structured questionnaire method
In this kind of method, job analysts send a structured questionnaire to the worker, in which they check or rate items they perform on their job from a long list of possible task items. Questions that are sent seem to be a kind of checklist information that is presented in front of the workers and have to respond to the questions that are mentioned in the questionnaire. This method gives job analysts a technique that is found as an excellent source of gathering information about jobs. It has been also discovered that exceptions to a job may be overlooked and feedback is often lacking.
- Technical conference method
In this approach, experienced managers are convened. High-skilled supervisors are used in this strategy. This technique is used to gather specific job characteristics from specialists. In this strategy, those who are thought of as experts are invited. It works well for acquiring information. It has been discovered that this method frequently disregards the perspective and thinking of the current employees regarding their tasks.
- The diary or log technique
It requires job holders to keep a record of their daily actions. Although it offers a lot of information, it is rarely relevant to work-related activities. One of the coercive techniques for gathering information is this one. It takes a lot of work from the incumbent, which is why extra time is needed. This strategy must be used for an extended length of time if the job analyst wants to record data on the whole spectrum of work activities.
These six approaches are not meant to be seen as competing with one another. Numerous organizations provide a variety of opportunities, from those for skilled to unskilled workers. For various jobs, the analysis may employ a variety of data collection techniques. In this case, the job analyst may combine all methods or part of the selective methods.
How to Apply the Work Results of Job Analysis
Job analysis results can provide the basis for quantitative indicators for recruitment and selection, managers better select personnel through an analysis of what needs to be done about this task, and how to complete these tasks requires knowledge and skills. When the manager is ready to find someone to fill a vacancy, he must be an accurate understanding possess the characteristics of this position.
Meanwhile, the job analysis can also provide the basis for the remuneration of management by job evaluation results, more importantly, it could be in line with organizational change and development .in the transformation stage, employees will feel the pressure from the corporate, the manager adjusts the inequality of job stress level by business analysis and job redesign, it increases or decreases its challenging workload. Specifically, the application of the results of job analysis show In the following areas:
- Reengineering :It fundamentally rethinks and redesigns business processes, aiming to greatly improve the cost, quality, service and speed critical, and other realistic performance targets.
- Job redesign: Job redesign means re-identify the specific task methods to be accomplished, at the same time, Job redesign determines how the work links with each other. It achieves the link of the work mainly through job enrichment and job enlargement means. Job enrichment is to deepen the requirements and responsibilities of the work at the vertical level, for example, increasing work requirements, fully authorized, and carrying out feedback skills training. Job enlargement expands the scope of work at the horizontal level, and more work categories for staff, it increases the performance of tasks carried out simultaneously with the full authority.