Job analysis is the process of defining, specifying, and assessing the value of each specific job duty and requirement for a certain position. It aids a business in selecting the ideal worker for a certain position.
In other words, job placement is decided upon using job analysis. For employers wishing to develop their career and compensation, it enables human resource managers to pinpoint the path of employment progression.
What is job analysis?
Some popular definitions of job analysis are as follows:
“A job analysis is a group of duties that one employee can complete to help with the creation of a certain good or service offered by the company. Each job has certain skill requirements (as well as specific benefits) related to it. It is the method utilized to pinpoint these demands.III Herbert G. Hereman
“Job Analysis discusses the anatomy of jobs. It necessitates thorough research on the job, its encapsulating elements, and its determinable components, including the duties and responsibilities associated with job performance as well as the working conditions. It also examines the tasks’ nature, the workers’ qualifications, and the employment terms, including wages, working hours, and job possibilities and privileges John L. Wylie
“Job analysis” is the process of researching the functions, responsibilities, and organizational characteristics of positions to develop a specification or job description.J. Michael Jucius.
Related: Job Analysis: A Complete Guide
Steps in job analysis
1. Job planning and analysis
Before starting the data collection from managers and employees, the job analysis procedure must be planned. Identifying the goals of the job analysis is likely the most crucial factor. Maybe all that needs to be done is change job descriptions. Or, it can result in the organization’s pay plans being revised. Redesigning the roles in a division or department of the organization could be another goal. Additionally, it could be necessary to alter the organizational structure in some areas to better align it with corporate strategy. Obtaining top management support is crucial for achieving any defined goal.
2. Preparing and Introducing the Job Analysis
The people who will be responsible for carrying out the job analysis and the techniques to be employed are identified in this step.
It is also stated how management and present employees would participate in the process and how many employees’ positions will be taken into consideration. Reviewing existing documents is another duty during the identification step. It may be helpful to evaluate existing job descriptions, organizational diagrams, data from prior job analyses, and other resources relating to the industry.
Having information from this evaluation could help later in the process and save time and effort. Communicating with and outlining the procedure to management, affected employees, and other concerned parties, such as union stewards, is an essential first step. The goal of the job analysis, the stages involved, the timetable, how managers and employees will engage, who is performing the analysis, and whom to contact in case of questions are frequently covered topics.
3. Performing the Job Analysis
Once the preparation is done, it is time to do the job analysis. The project’s timeline will be determined by the strategies chosen. It is important to give enough time to gather the data from managers and staff. When using questionnaires, it is frequently beneficial to have employees provide them to managers or supervisors for assessment before delivering them to the people conducting the job analysis. A letter outlining the procedure and providing directions for completing and returning the job analysis questionnaires should be included with the questionnaire. After compiling the results of the job analysis, the information should be arranged by job, job family, and organizational unit. In this step, data from comparable jobs across the organization can be compared. Information also
4. Creating Job Specifications and Job Descriptions
Draft job descriptions and job specifications will be created at this point by the job analysts. A section describing specifics on how to develop job descriptions and job specifications is included later in this chapter. Here, we underline the need for the drafts to be quite full and point out any areas that require further explanation. In general, businesses have discovered that it is not advised to have managers and employees develop job descriptions for several reasons. The format and information are inconsistent, which is a problem given the legal ramifications of job descriptions. Second, the writing abilities of managers and employees differ. Additionally, rather than focusing on the requirements of the work, they might write the job descriptions and specifications to represent what they do and their characteristics.
The drafts should be evaluated by management after they are finished. The management style of the supervisors/managers and the culture of the business about employee engagement and communication frequently decide whether employees evaluate the draft job descriptions or wait to obtain the final ones. The HR division distributes completed job descriptions to managers, supervisors, and staff members. Each manager or supervisor must go over the finished description with specific employees to ensure knowledge and agreement on the information that will be connected to all other HR operations, including performance reviews.
5. Keeping Job Descriptions and Job Specifications Current
A system must be created for maintaining job descriptions and specifications after they have been finished and reviewed by all pertinent parties. If not, the entire procedure—starting with the job analysis—might need to be repeated in a few years. Few positions remain the same for years because corporations are dynamic, changing entities. Usually, someone in the HR division is in charge of making sure that job descriptions and requirements are up to date. The people doing the work and their managers are essential since they are the ones who are most aware of changes. Using job descriptions and job specifications in other HR tasks is one efficient technique to guarantee that appropriate reviews take place.
For instance, before beginning the recruiting and selection process, the job description and specifications should be evaluated and updated as necessary whenever a vacancy arises. Similar to this, supervisors in certain firms go over the job description during each interview for a performance review. The job holder and the supervisor can talk about whether the job description still effectively depicts the real job or whether it needs to be altered during this review. During HR planning efforts, a thorough and organized evaluation may also be carried out. For many organizations, a thorough review is conducted once every three years, or more frequently when significant organizational changes are made, or if technology changes.
Related: Steps in Job Analysis
Importance of job analysis
1. Determine your time and procedure
Making a plan for your procedure can guarantee a complete and effective analysis. Consider creating a list of the actions you’d like to take, additional coworkers or experts in the industry to contact, and materials you would require for the job. If you want to keep the analysis on track, you can also set a deadline for finishing the project.
2. Compile details regarding requirements and the position
You can begin obtaining data on the role for your analysis once you have defined your strategy. This can contain the qualities or abilities required for the position and the current responsibilities. Some of this information may be available in employee training manuals or previous job listings. Employee training manuals can provide information on tasks and possible execution methods. They may also have exam preparation materials for assignments that will enhance your data.
To learn more about the position, you may also speak to the employees who are currently performing it. They can describe their current responsibilities to you and provide a history of any previous ones. Their responsibilities may have changed as the role has progressed, therefore it’s vital to mention this in your analysis.
3. Interact with the company’s executives
During this phase, managers, supervisors, or other human resource specialists can also be great sources of information. There may be historical job ads or assessments of the position available from other human resource specialists. Older job responsibilities or prior titles may be listed in past job advertisements. An analysis of prior employment may be part of evaluations for the position, which would supplement your data.
Additionally, managers and supervisors may have insight into workers who have held the position in the past. Supervisors could offer advice based on previous employees who performed admirably in the position and tasks they undertook. They might also provide information on former employees who still possess the necessary skills and information about other employees in the role. To determine the contributions a role provides, ask the manager or supervisor how it fits into the team, department, and firm.
4. Review your skill set
You can assess the skill set once you have a list of the current set of credentials and abilities required to carry out the function. While some abilities may fall under the category of an entry-level skill set, others may be classified as specialist knowledge. You could separate tasks or duties from abilities required for the position. You can discover what the organization could want for a new set of standards by evaluating your list.
5. Examine industrial roles
You can compare standards by looking at other roles or positions in the same industry that are comparable. This can verify that the outcomes of your analysis are consistent with positions that are similar to it. If your analysis differs from that of other positions in the sector, you might be able to modify the function by establishing new criteria or a whole new title.
6. Make a list of new requirements
You can make a list of standards for your role once you have all of your data. Depending on the findings of your investigation, this list of job responsibilities can be identical to the previous list or it might be a new listing. If necessary, your new set of standards may result in the creation of a completely new position or just a modest modification of an existing function.
For instance, while analyzing the work of an administrative assistant, you discovered they are responsible for various payroll-related tasks that were not originally listed in the job description. Instead of creating a new payroll job because they are not an essential component of the role, you add them to the updated list of duties.
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