Job Analysis: Complete Guide

Job Analysis: Complete Guide

A thorough inquiry is part of the job analysis process to manage the output or properly complete the task. The procedure aids in learning what a specific department needs and what a potential employee must provide.

It also assists in figuring out information about a job, such as the job’s title, location, summary, responsibilities, working conditions, potential risks, and the machinery, tools, equipment, and materials that the current or future employee will use.

However, the procedure is not just about figuring out these characteristics. It also includes determining the human requirements for the position. These include determining the levels of training, judgment, initiative, leadership, physical prowess, communication prowess, accountability, responsibility, emotional traits, and uncommon sensory demands. These variables fluctuate based on a job’s kind, seniority level, industry, and level of risk.

What is job analysis?

What is job analysis?

Job analysis is a methodical way to figure out what a person truly does for a living.” A job analysis is thorough research, study, and documentation of the responsibilities, duties, talents, and accountabilities of a particular position. Determining the relative relevance of a job’s responsibilities, demands, and physical and emotional requirements is also necessary. All of these elements influence what a job includes and what traits someone needs to have to do a good job.

One of the key concepts in human resource management is job analysis. It serves as a method of determining the nature of the position and the responsibilities of the employee. It also offers details on the kinds of people who ought to be employed for a specific job profile.

It is a methodical strategy to gather data and generate an opinion regarding every aspect of work.

The preparation of a document containing all the job specifications and descriptions pertinent to the task performed is the process of job analysis. A survey for all staff is also part of this process.

Importance of job analysis

Importance of job analysis

Human Resource Planning:

Job analysis provides information such as how many employees and which specific skill set is required to perform the job. This information is very necessary for human resource planning.

Recruitment and Selection:

The right person for the right job is the objective of the recruitment system. The job analysis provides information about the behavioral and personal attributes of the employees which can be utilized to make the hiring process more effective.

Related: Process of Recruitment: A Complete Guide 

Training and Development:

The information regarding the skills and knowledge required to perform a job is gathered through job analysis. Thus, based on job analysis organizations can choose the right training methods and accordingly can design relevant and appropriate training and development programs for employees.

Related: Learning and Development strategies

Placement and Orientation:

Placement and orientation

When the HR department links the skill set of employees with the job to be assigned it gets easier to make a placement decision. The skills required for a particular job are acquired through job analysis. It also provides information regarding the orientation required for a new employee to perform well in the assigned job.

Job Evaluation:

The relative worth of a job and the appropriate salary structure of the job are determined in the job evaluation with the help of information provided by the job analysis.

Performance Appraisal:

The job standards are established using job analysis. These job standards are utilized to rank the employees based on their performance and further carry out the performance appraisal process.

Personnel Information:

Personnel Information

All the records of the Human Resource Information System (HRIS) are boasted using job analysis. It helps to improve the efficiency of administration and supports the decision-making system of the organization.

Health and Safety:

Lastly, the information regarding the working condition of a job is provided by the job analysis. This information is used to create a safe and healthy work environment for the employees.

Related: Importance of Job Analysis

Steps in job analysis

Job analysis includes a thorough assessment to ensure that the task is completed appropriately and to regulate output. Understanding what a certain department needs as well as what a potential employee must offer is made easier by the job analysis process.

Related: Steps in Job Analysis

The job analysis process also aids in the development of employment specifications, such as the title, location, and summary of the job, as well as the responsibilities, working environment, potential hazards, and the machinery, tools, equipment, and materials that the current or potential employee will use. But the procedure doesn’t stop at figuring out these factors.

Steps in job analysis

Job analysis is a very useful tool from the HR point of view, but it is difficult to execute. The job Analysis process involves five steps that have to be followed for a favorable result. The steps are described below: 

1. Organisational Job Analysis

The pertinent information regarding the job is obtained at the organizational level. It is critical to know what the performance level organization is looking forward to from the job holder and the contribution of the job to the goal attainment of the organization. The job-related information is then used to create an organizational chart. It consists of different job classes, flow charts, the flow of job activities, and sharing points of different job profiles.

2. Selecting Representative Jobs for Analysis

It is important to understand that the analysis of jobs of the organization is a bit time-consuming and costly affair. Thus, only some sample jobs are selected to carry out a detailed job analysis.

3. Collection of Data for Job Analysis

The information related to different features of the job and the abilities required to execute the job is collected from the organization. The job analysis tools such as observation, interviews, and questionnaires are used for the collection of data.

4. Preparing Job Description

Based on the collected data the HR team prepares a job description by defining the tasks, duties, and responsibilities which are discharged for effective performance.

5. Preparing Job Specification

The job specification is prepared which consists of the personal traits, skills, qualities, and qualifications that are required to perform the job properly.

Job analysis methods

Organizations can do a job analysis using a variety of strategies and methods. Although the job analysis procedure is constant, each business uses a different set of data collection techniques.

Personal experience

Job analysis methods

With this approach, the company appoints an observer to monitor the workers doing their jobs. The observer then compiles a lengthy list of the jobs completed as well as the traits of the person who did each task. While this approach is practical, there are some situations where it is ineffective. It is challenging to conclude from a few days of firsthand observation because the task carried out could vary every day.

The actual execution of the job

The job analyzer can carry out the task to gather information about the necessary skills, the level of difficulty when carrying out the assignment, and the amount of work needed to complete it.

Interview technique

Interviews with employees and their supervisors help gather information about the position. During the interview, questions about the assignment, the requisite skill level, and the necessary preparations are asked. Even though it takes a lot of time, this strategy is effective at gathering job-related information. However, both the employee and the supervisor frequently overlook key facets of the job. It is frequently difficult to specify the job description and specifications since the work obligations are overstated.

The use of questionnaires

One of the least expensive ways to get information for job analysis is through this strategy. To gather information about a position quickly, well-designed and simple to comprehend questionnaires can be quite helpful. Both multiple-choice and open-ended questions can be created to gauge employees’ attitudes toward their work. Only incomplete forms and erroneous information provided by employees about their job profiles can prevent a successful job analysis using this method.

Logbooks and personnel records

Logbooks and personnel records

A highly helpful type of job data is the log record book the employee kept of their daily actions in the office. The thorough scope of the documents gives a good picture of the tasks and obligations associated with the employment. The HR record can be used as job data similarly. It contains details on the fundamental competencies of the staff, their background in experience, and any advancements they have received. Additionally, it contains the personal data of the employees, such as their educational background, past employment history, job title, and year of experience.

Electronic Job Analysis

Computerized employment analysis systems are created by researchers with the aid of information and communication technologies. Data specificity is a crucial component of automated job analysis. All of the specific data is combined to form a database for job analysis. Using a computerized job analysis system to create job descriptions saves time and effort. The job descriptions produced using this technique are highly precise and connected to the pay structure.

A few businesses also adopt the critical incident technique, in which employees share significant situations they have experienced while carrying out their jobs. To obtain speedy and precise results, combination approaches are occasionally used.

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